and Allah said "And proclaim the pilgramage among men; they will come to thee on foot and on every kind of camel. Lean on account of Journeys through deep and distant mountain highways" Surah 22 ~ Al Hajj Part 27

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The following are some extracts from the charter:

After dealing with the interior management of the State, the charter concluded as follows:

"All future disputes arising among those who accept this charter shall be referred, under Allah to the Prophet."

Thus this charter put an end to the state of anarchy that prevailed among the Arabs. It constituted the Prophet Muhammad as chief magistrate of the nation.

The party of the Ansar, or Helpers, included some lukewarm converts who retained an ill-concealed predilection for idolatry. These were headed by Abdullah Ibn Ubai, a man with some claims to distinction. They ostensibly joined Islam, but in secret were disaffected. They often were a source of considerable danger to the newborn commonwealth and required unceasing watchfulness on the part of the Prophet. Towards them he always showed the greatest patience and forbearance, hoping in the end to win them over to the faith, which expectations were fully justified by the result. While the death of Abdullah Ibn Ubai, his party which were known as the party of the "Munafiqeen" (the Hypocrites) disappeared.

The Jews who constituted the third party of the Medinites were, however, the most serious element of danger. No kindness or generous treatment on the part of the Prophet would seem to satisfy them. They soon broke off and ranged themselves with the enemies of the new faith. They did not hesitate to declare openly that they preferred idolatry, with its attendant evils, to the faith of Islam. Thus, the Prophet had to keep an eye on his enemies outside Medina , on the one hand, and those within the city on the other. The Makkans who had sworn Muhammad's death were well acquainted, thanks to the party of the Hypocrites and of the Jews at Medina , with the real forces of the Muslims. They also knew that the Jews had accepted Muhammad's alliance only from motives of temporary expedience and that they would break away from him to join the idolaters as soon as the latter showed themselves in the vicinity of Medina . The safety of the state required the proscription of the traitors who were secretly giving information to the common enemy. About six men were executed for high treason of this nature.

Towards the second year of the hijrah, the idolaters of Mecca (Makkah) began a series of hostile acts against the Muslims of Medina. They sent men in parties to commit depredations on the fruit trees of the Muslims of Medina and to carry away their flocks. Now came the moment of severest trial to Islam. It became the duty of the Prophet to take serious measures to guard against any plot rising from within or a sudden attack. He put Medina in a state of military discipline. He had to send frequent reconnaissance parties to guard against any sudden onslaught. No sooner did the Prophet organize hi-state when a large well-equipped army of the Makkans was a field. A force constituting of one thousand men marched under Abu Jahl, a great enemy of Islam, towards Medina to attack the city. The Muslims received timely notice of their enemies' intention. A body of three hundred adherents, of whom two thirds were citizens of Medina , were gathered to forestall the idolaters by occupying the valley of Badr , situated near the sea between Mecca and Medina . When the Prophet saw the army of the infidels approaching the valley, he prayed that the little band of Muslims might not be destroyed.

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]

[16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28]