and Allah said "And proclaim the pilgramage among men; they will come to thee on foot and on every kind of camel. Lean on account of Journeys through deep and distant mountain highways" Surah 22 ~ Al Hajj Part 27
Towards the beginning of the tenth year of the mission, reconciliation was concluded between the Quraish and the two families of Hashim and Abu Muttalib through the intermediation of Hisham, Ibn Umar, and Zobeir, Ibn Abu Umayya. Thus, the alliance against the two families was abolished, and they were able to return to Mecca (Makkah).
During this period the Prophet and his kins-people passed in a defensive position, Islam made no progress outside; but in the sacred months, when violence was considered sacrilege, the Prophet used to come out of his temporary prison to preach Islam to the pilgrims. In the following year, both Abu Talib and Khadijah died. Thus the Prophet lost in Abu Talib the kind guardian of his youth who had protected him against his enemies, and in Khadijah his most encouraging companion. She was ever his angel of hope and consolation. The Prophet, weighed down by the loss of his amiable protector and his beloved wife, without hope of turning the Quraish from idolatry, with a saddened heart, yet full of trust, resolved to exercise his ministry in some of her field. He chose Taif, a town about sixty miles east of Mecca (Makkah) on the slopes of Al-Sarawat Mountain / Sarat, where he went accompanied by a faithful servant Zaid.
The tribe of Thakif, who were the inhabitants of Ta'if, received Muhammad very coldly. However, he stayed there for one month. Though the more considerate and better sort of men treated him with a little respect, the slaves and common people refused to listen to his teachings; they were outrageously indignant at his invitation to abandon the gods they worshipped with such freedom of morals and lightness of heart. At length they rose against him, and bringing him to the wall of the city, obliged him to depart and return to Mecca (Makkah).
The repulse greatly discouraged his followers; however, the Prophet boldly continued to preach to the public assemblies at the pilgrimage and gained several new converts, among whom were six of the city of Yahtrib (later became known as Medina), of the Jewish tribe of Khazraj. When these Yathribites returned home, they spread the news among their people that a prophet had arisen among the Arabs who was to call them to Allah and put an end to their inquiries.
In the twelfth year of his mission, the Prophet made his night journey from Mecca (Makkah) to Jerusalem (Bayt Al Maqdis), and ascended in to the heavens. His journey, known in history as Miraj (Ascension) was a real bodily one and not only a vision. It was at this time that Allah ordered the Muslims to pray the five daily prayers.
Almighty Allah had said: Glorified (and Exalted) be He (Allah) (above all that evil they associate with Him), Who took His slave Muhammad for a journey by night from Masjid al Haram (at Makkah) to the farthest mosque (in Jerusalem), the neighborhood whereof We have blessed, order that We might show him (Muhammad) of Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.). Verily, He is the All Hearer, the All Seer." ( 17:1 Quran)
Abbas Ibn Malik reported that Malik Ibn Sasaa said that Allah's Messenger described to them his Night Journey saying: "While I was lying in Al-Hatim or Al-Hijr, suddenly someone came to me and cut my body open from here to here." I asked Al-Jarud, who was by my side, "What does he mean?" He said: "It means from his throat to his public area," or said, "From the top of the chest." The Prophet further said, "He then took out my heart. Then a gold tray of Belief was brought to me and my heart was washed and was filled (with Belief) and then returned to its original place. Then a white animal which was smaller than a mule and bigger than a donkey was brought to me." (On this Al-Jarud asked: "Was it in the Buraq, O Abu Hamza?" I (Anas) replied in the affirmative.
The Prophet said: "The animal's step (was so wide that it) reached the farthest point within the reach of the animals' sight. I was carried on it, and Gabriel (Jibrael) (Jibrael) accompanied me..
"When he asked for the gate to be opened, it was asked, 'Who is it?' Gabriel (Jibrael) answered, 'Gabriel (Jibrael).' It was asked, 'Who is accompanying you?' Gabriel (Jibrael) replied, 'Muhammad.' It was asked, 'Has Muhammad been called?' Gabriel (Jibrael) replied in the affirmative. Then it was said. 'He is welcomed. What an excellent visit his is!' The gate was opened, and when I went over the first heaven, I saw Adam there. Gabriel (Jibrael) said to me: 'This is your father, Adam; pay him your greetings.' So I greeted him and he returned the greetings to me and said: 'You are welcomed, O pious son and pious Prophet.' Then Gabriel (Jibrael) ascended with me till we reached the second heaven. Gabriel (Jibrael) asked for the gate to be opened. It was asked: 'Who is it?' Gabriel (Jibrael) answered: 'Gabriel (Jibrael).' It was asked: 'Who is accompanying you?' Gabriel (Jibrael) replied, 'Muhammad.' It was asked: 'Has he been called?' Gabriel (Jibrael) answered in the affirmative. Then it was said: 'He is welcomed. What an excellent visit his is!' The gate was opened.